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South Korea Get Back Into Crypto, China Embraces Blockchain





South Korea Contemplates Lifting ICO Ban

South Korea — which has given the crypto community more than its share of FUD since it began banning ICOs and anonymous trading months earlier — is now considering re-legalizing Initial Coin Offerings in the country. The change of heart reportedly comes as the National Assembly seeks to enhance the legal “basis” of cryptocurrency.

Vulnerabilities In EOS Blockchain Discovered, Fixed Same Day

A Chinese Internet security company found “epic” vulnerabilities in EOS’s blockchain this week that they say could affect a variety of other blockchain platforms. EOS, after asking the company not to publicize the news (to no avail), reportedly then patched the bug the same day.

John McAfee To Launch Crypto-Backed Fiat Currency

The eccentric businessman behind McAfee Anti-Virus software tweeted this week that the rumors are true, he will be launching his own “McAfee Coin,” which is both convertible to crypto and redeemable for up to 100 minutes of facetime with McAfee himself. The catch? You must first fly to a certain address in Mexico, only there to be told the date, time, and place for the meeting.

China’s President Lauds Blockchain As “Technical Revolution”

President of China, Xi Jinping, spoke of blockchain technology as an example of a “new generation” of “breakthrough” technology during a speech at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. According to the president, we are now in an “unprecedented period of intensive activity” in terms of scientific and technological innovation.

Leading Crypto Exchange Binances Creates $1 Bln Crypto Fund

Cryptocurrency exchange Binance, which is currently leading globally by trade volume, is creating a $1 bln cryptocurrency-based fund using Binance’s BNB tokens as an investment vehicle. The fund, which will be managed through Binance’s incubator spin-off, Binance Labs, is seeking 20 partners that each have at least $100 mln under asset management.

Sumber : https://cointelegraph.com/news/hodlers-digest-may-28-june-3-south-korea-get-back-into-crypto-china-embraces-blockchain/amp
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GPU MINING LEBIH CEPAT BERBANDING CPU

Why a GPU mines faster than a CPU
Some Bitcoin users might wonder why there is a huge disparity between the mining output of a CPU versus a GPU.

First, just to clarify, the CPU, or central processing unit, is the part of the computer that performs the will of the software loaded on the computer. It's the main executive for the entire machine. It is the master that tells all the parts of the computer what to do - in accordance with the program code of the software, and, hopefully, the will of the user.

Most computers have multi-core CPUs nowadays (which is almost the same thing as having multiple CPU's in a single physical package)., and some computers even have multiple CPUs.

The CPU is usually a removable component that plugs into the computer's main circuit board, or motherboard and sits underneath a large, metallic heat sink which usually has a fan, a few are cooled by water.

The GPU, or graphics processing unit, is a part of the video rendering system of a computer. The typical function of a GPU is to assist with the rendering of 3D graphics and visual effects so that the CPU doesn't have to.

Servers usually have very limited or no GPU facilities as they are mostly managed over a text-based remote interface. Most mainstream computers have much slower but less power consuming and cheaper IGPs (Integrated Graphics Processor), which are GPUs as well but integrated directly into the chipset and soldered onto the motherboard, rather than separate, more powerful but power consuming AGP or PCIe cards with GPUs, but separate GPUs. Powerful GPUs are needed mostly for graphic intensive tasks such as gaming or video editing. For example, the translucent windows in Windows 7, or technologies like Mac OS X's Quartz, which powers the Aqua desktop and its beautiful, water-like graphical effects and animations such as bulging the Dock in a smooth animation when the mouse is moved to the lower edge of the screen or "sucking" windows into the Dock when they are minimized - these are powered by GPUs.

A GPU is like a CPU, but there are important internal differences that make them suited toward their special tasks. These are the differences that make Bitcoin mining far more favorable on a GPU.

Contents
1 Short Answer
2 A CPU is an executive
3 A GPU is a laborer
4 Analogy
5 Why are AMD GPUs faster than Nvidia GPUs?
6 NVIDIA Releases NEW Generations of GPU Cards
7 See Also

Short Answer
A CPU core can execute 4 32-bit instructions per clock (using a 128-bit SSE instruction) or 8 via AVX (256-Bit), whereas a GPU like the Radeon HD 5970 can execute 3200 32-bit instructions per clock (using its 3200 ALUs or shaders). This is a difference of 800 (or 400 in case of AVX) times more instructions per clock. As of 2011, the fastest CPUs have up to 6, 8, or 12 cores and a somewhat higher frequency clock (2000-3000 MHz vs. 725 MHz for the Radeon HD 5970), but one HD5970 is still more than five times faster than four 12-core CPUs at 2.3GHz (which would also set you back about $4700 rather than $350 for the HD5970).

A CPU is an executive
A CPU is designed primarily to be an executive and make decisions, as directed by the software. For example, if you type a document and save it, it is the CPU's job to turn your document into the appropriate file type and direct the hard disk to write it as a file. CPU's can also do all kinds of math, as inside every CPU is one or more "Arithmetic/Logic Units" (ALU's). CPU's are also highly capable of following instructions of the "if this, do that, otherwise do something else". A large bulk of the structures inside a CPU are concerned with making sure that the CPU is ready to deal with having to switch to a different task on a moment's notice when needed.

CPU's also have to deal with quite a few other things which add complexity, including:

enforcing privilege levels and the boundaries between user programs and the operating system
creating the illusion of "virtual memory" to programs
for the most popular processors, being backwards compatible with legacy code
A GPU is a laborer
A GPU is very different. Yes, a GPU can do math, and can also do "this" and "that" based on specific conditions. However, GPU's have been designed so they are very good at doing video processing, and less executive work.

Video processing is a lot of repetitive work, since it is constantly being told to do the same thing to large groups of pixels on the screen. In order to make this run efficiency, video processors are far heavier on the ability to do repetitive work, than the ability to rapidly switch tasks.

GPU's have large numbers of ALU's, more so than CPU's. As a result, they can do large amounts of bulky mathematical labor in a greater quantity than CPU's.

Analogy
One way to visualize it is a CPU works like a small group of very smart people who can quickly do any task given to them. A GPU is a large group of relatively dumb people who aren't individually very fast or smart, but who can be trained to do repetitive tasks, and collectively can be more productive just due to the sheer number of people.

It's not that a CPU is fat, spoiled, or lazy. Both CPUs and GPUs are creations made from billions of microscopic transistors crammed on a small piece of silicon. On silicon chips, size is expensive. The structures that make CPUs good at what they do take up lots of space. When those structures are omitted, that leaves plenty of room for many "dumb" ALU's, which individually are very small.

The ALUs of a GPU are partitioned into groups, and each group of ALUs shares management, so members of the group cannot be made to work on separate tasks. They can either all work on nearly identical variations of one single task, in perfect sync with one another, or nothing at all. Trying different hashes repeatedly - the process behind Bitcoin mining - is a very repetitive task suitable for a GPU, with each attempt varying only by the changing of one number (called a "nonce") in the data being hashed.

The ATI Radeon 5970 is a popular video card for Bitcoin mining and, to date, offers the best known performance of any video card for this purpose.

This particular card has 3,200 "Stream Processors", which can be thought of as 3,200 very dumb execution units that can be trained to all do the same repetitive task, just so long as they don't have to make any decisions that interrupts their flow. Those execution units are contained in blocks. The 5970 uses a VLIW-5 architecture, which means the 3,200 Stream Processors are actually 640 "Cores," Each able to process 5 instruction per clock cycle. Nvidia would call these cores "Cuda Cores", but as mentioned in this article, they are not VLIW, meaning they cannot do as much work per cycle. This is why comparing graphics cards by core count alone is not an accurate method of determining performance, and this is also why nVidia lags so far behind ATI in SHA-256 hashing.

Since ALU's are what do all the work of Bitcoin mining, the number of available ALU's has a direct effect on the hash output. Compare that to a 4-core CPU that can switch tasks on a dime, but has ALU's in some small multiple of four, if not just four ALU's alone. Trying a single SHA256 hash in the context of Bitcoin mining requires around 1,000 simple mathematical steps that must be performed entirely by ALU's.

That, in a nutshell, is why GPU's can mine Bitcoins so much faster than CPU's. Bitcoin mining requires no decision making - it is repetitive mathematical work for a computer. The only decision making that must be made in Bitcoin mining is, "do I have a valid block" or "do I not". That's an excellent workload to run on a GPU.

Why are AMD GPUs faster than Nvidia GPUs?
Firstly, AMD designs GPUs with many simple ALUs/shaders (VLIW design) that run at a relatively low frequency clock (typically 1120-3200 ALUs at 625-900 MHz), whereas Nvidia's microarchitecture consists of fewer more complex ALUs and tries to compensate with a higher shader clock (typically 448-1024 ALUs at 1150-1544 MHz). Because of this VLIW vs. non-VLIW difference, Nvidia uses up more square millimeters of die space per ALU, hence can pack fewer of them per chip, and they hit the frequency wall sooner than AMD which prevents them from increasing the clock high enough to match or surpass AMD's performance. This translates to a raw ALU performance advantage for AMD:

AMD Radeon HD 6990: 3072 ALUs x 830 MHz = 2550 billion 32-bit instruction per second
Nvidia GTX 590: 1024 ALUs x 1214 MHz = 1243 billion 32-bit instruction per second
This approximate 2x-3x performance difference exists across the entire range of AMD and Nvidia GPUs. It is very visible in all ALU-bound GPGPU workloads such as Bitcoin, password bruteforcers, etc.

Secondly, another difference favoring Bitcoin mining on AMD GPUs instead of Nvidia's is that the mining algorithm is based on SHA-256, which makes heavy use of the 32-bit integer right rotate operation. This operation can be implemented as a single hardware instruction on AMD GPUs (BIT_ALIGN_INT), but requires three separate hardware instructions to be emulated on Nvidia GPUs (2 shifts + 1 add). This alone gives AMD another 1.7x performance advantage (~1900 instructions instead of ~3250 to execute the SHA-256 compression function).

Combined together, these 2 factors make AMD GPUs overall 3x-5x faster when mining Bitcoins.

NVIDIA Releases NEW Generations of GPU Cards
NVIDIA's new flagship card "GeForce GTX 690" is now beefier than it's younger sibling - GTX 590. EVGA has also decided to use the same chipset on its flagship card "EVGA GeForce GTX 690 Signature". But what are the comparitive figures for the AMD and new NVIDIA GPU's ? See Some Performance Specs Below:


GeForce GTX 690 (4,096MB):

GPU Clock (MHz) 915 (1,019), GFLOPS 5,621 Single Precision, Double Precision Figures unavailable, ALU's 3072 (manufacturer refer to this as CUDA Cores)


AMD Radeon HD 6990:

830MHz Engine Clock, 5,100 GFLOPs Single Precision , 1,270 GFLOPs Double Precision, ALU's 3072

See Also
Mining hardware comparison
Miners
Pool Operators

Sumber
https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Why_a_GPU_mines_faster_than_a_CPU
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Mining

Mining is the process of adding transaction records to Bitcoin's public ledger of past transactions (and a "mining rig" is a colloquial metaphor for a single computer system that performs the necessary computations for "mining". This ledger of past transactions is called the block chain as it is a chain of blocks. The blockchain serves to confirm transactions to the rest of the network as having taken place. Bitcoin nodes use the blockchain to distinguish legitimate Bitcoin transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already been spent elsewhere.

Mining is intentionally designed to be resource-intensive and difficult so that the number of blocks found each day by miners remains steady. Individual blocks must contain a proof of work to be considered valid. This proof of work is verified by other Bitcoin nodes each time they receive a block. Bitcoin uses the hashcash proof-of-work function.

The primary purpose of mining is to set the history of transactions in a way that is computationally impractical to modify by any one entity. By downloading and verifying the blockchain, bitcoin nodes are able to reach consensus about the ordering of events in bitcoin.

Mining is also the mechanism used to introduce Bitcoins into the system: Miners are paid any transaction fees as well as a "subsidy" of newly created coins. This both serves the purpose of disseminating new coins in a decentralized manner as well as motivating people to provide security for the system.

Bitcoin mining is so called because it resembles the mining of other commodities: it requires exertion and it slowly makes new units available to anybody who wishes to take part. An important difference is that the supply does not depend on the amount of mining. In general changing total miner hashpower does not change how many bitcoins are created over the long term.

Difficulty
The Computationally-Difficult Problem
Mining a block is difficult because the SHA-256 hash of a block's header must be lower than or equal to the target in order for the block to be accepted by the network. This problem can be simplified for explanation purposes: The hash of a block must start with a certain number of zeros. The probability of calculating a hash that starts with many zeros is very low, therefore many attempts must be made. In order to generate a new hash each round, a nonce is incremented. See Proof of work for more information.

The Difficulty Metric
The difficulty is the measure of how difficult it is to find a new block compared to the easiest it can ever be. The rate is recalculated every 2,016 blocks to a value such that the previous 2,016 blocks would have been generated in exactly one fortnight (two weeks) had everyone been mining at this difficulty. This is expected yield, on average, one block every ten minutes.

As more miners join, the rate of block creation increases. As the rate of block generation increases, the difficulty rises to compensate, which has a balancing of effect due to reducing the rate of block-creation. Any blocks released by malicious miners that do not meet the required difficulty target will simply be rejected by the other participants in the network.

Reward
When a block is discovered, the discoverer may award themselves a certain number of bitcoins, which is agreed-upon by everyone in the network. Currently this bounty is 12.5 bitcoins; this value will halve every 210,000 blocks. See Controlled Currency Supply.

Additionally, the miner is awarded the fees paid by users sending transactions. The fee is an incentive for the miner to include the transaction in their block. In the future, as the number of new bitcoins miners are allowed to create in each block dwindles, the fees will make up a much more important percentage of mining income.

The mining ecosystem
Hardware

FPGA Module
Users have used various types of hardware over time to mine blocks. Hardware specifications and performance statistics are detailed on the Mining Hardware Comparison page.

CPU Mining
Early Bitcoin client versions allowed users to use their CPUs to mine. The advent of GPU mining made CPU mining financially unwise as the hashrate of the network grew to such a degree that the amount of bitcoins produced by CPU mining became lower than the cost of power to operate a CPU. The option was therefore removed from the core Bitcoin client's user interface.

GPU Mining
GPU Mining is drastically faster and more efficient than CPU mining. See the main article: Why a GPU mines faster than a CPU. A variety of popular mining rigs have been documented.

FPGA Mining
FPGA mining is a very efficient and fast way to mine, comparable to GPU mining and drastically outperforming CPU mining. FPGAs typically consume very small amounts of power with relatively high hash ratings, making them more viable and efficient than GPU mining. See Mining Hardware Comparison for FPGA hardware specifications and statistics.

ASIC Mining
An application-specific integrated circuit, or ASIC, is a microchip designed and manufactured for a very specific purpose. ASICs designed for Bitcoin mining were first released in 2013. For the amount of power they consume, they are vastly faster than all previous technologies and already have made GPU mining financially.

Mining services (Cloud mining)
Mining contractors provide mining services with performance specified by contract, often referred to as a "Mining Contract." They may, for example, rent out a specific level of mining capacity for a set price at a specific duration.

Pools
As more and more miners competed for the limited supply of blocks, individuals found that they were working for months without finding a block and receiving any reward for their mining efforts. This made mining something of a gamble. To address the variance in their income miners started organizing themselves into pools so that they could share rewards more evenly. See Pooled mining and Comparison of mining pools.

History
Bitcoin's public ledger (the "block chain") was started on January 3rd, 2009 at 18:15 UTC presumably by Satoshi Nakamoto. The first block is known as the genesis block. The first transaction recorded in the first block was a single transaction paying the reward of 50 new bitcoins to its creator.

Source
https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mining
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Bill Gates : Bitcoin Is Better Than Currency

Bill Gates : Orang Terkaya Di Dunia Pun Pilih Bitcoin, Apa Pilihan Anda?

Founder of Microsoft and richest person in the world.
"I think it's a technical tour de force but that it is an area where governments are going to maintain a dominant role."
"Bitcoin is exciting because it shows how cheap it can be. Bitcoin is better than currency in that you don’t have to be physically in the same place and, of course, for large transactions, currency can get pretty inconvenient.”



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